Kanto, Japan Earthquake of 1 September 1923, Mw=7.9
At 02:58 UTC on September 01, 1923, a great earthquake with magnitude 7.9 occurred in Japan, killing about 142,800 deaths. The event is considered as one of the world’s most destructive earthquakes. Extreme destruction in the Tokyo – Yokohama area from the earthquake and subsequent firestorms, which burned about 381,000 of the more than 694,000 houses that were partially or completely destroyed. Although often known as the Great Tokyo Earthquake (or the Great Tokyo Fire), the damage was apparently most severe at Yokohama. Damage also occurred on the Boso and Izu Peninsulas and on O-shima. Nearly 2 m of permanent uplift was observed on the north shore of Sagami Bay and horizontal displacements of as much as 4.5 m were measured on the Boso Peninsula. A tsunami was generated in Sagami Bay with wave heights as high as 12 m on O-shima and 6 m on the Izu and Boso Peninsulas. Sandblows were noted at Hojo which intermittently shot fountains of water to a height of 3 m (Source: USGS). In Japan, September 1 is the Disaster Prevention Day. This day commemorates the 1923 Great Kanto earthquake and is a day on which disaster preparations are taken nationwide, especially in the Kanto region.